Tuesday, March 29, 2016

Marriage Registration documents

Marriage Registration documents : (Customary)
1          Marriage Registration Application Form ( Memorandum of Marriage)
Affidavit the Bridegroom and Bride if documents are not in order

2          Bridegroom and Bride’s proof of age
Birth Certificate, Aadhar, Passport, Voter Id, PAN Card, Matriculation Certificate, Domicile Certificate,

3          Husband and Wife’s proof of residence
(Ration Card, Aadhar Card, Passport, Election Voter Id, PAN Card, Utility bill like telephone/electricity, etc) Individual Photos of the Bridegroom and Bride and Marriage photos of both
4          Certificate of religious marriage issued by a Priest, Pandit, Maulvi, Kazi, Iman, etc (This is in case of a religious wedding)

5          Witnesses
Photo and Proof of Identity of 3 Witnesses (Ration Card, Aadhar Card, Passport, Election Voter Id, PAN Card, Driving License, Utility bill like telephone/electricity, etc)
Wedding Card (If not present, then an affidavit on Stamp Paper with 3 witnesses)
Divorce Decree Certificate (In case either or both spouses are divorcees)
ID proof of priest who performed marriage
Death Certificate (In case of widow or widower marriage)

For Court Marriage registration:
1             Documents  2 to 4 are common
2             Marriage application in three copies with passport photos, not marriage photos as per item 3.
Satish Swami

Apple vs FBI: What Happened?

Apple's legal standoff with the FBI ended Monday, but experts say the issues behind it will come up again, as more tech companies take measures to guard their customers' messages, photos, business records and other files.

After weeks of heated debate, in which Apple had resisted the FBI's demand for help, authorities say they found their own way to get the data from an encrypted iPhone used by one of the San Bernardino mass shooters.

Confused by all the back-and-forth in this high-stakes dispute? AP explains:

What was the fight about?
At the Justice Department's request, a federal judge ordered Apple last month to help the FBI unlock an encrypted iPhone used by Syed Farook, who along with his wife, Tashfeen Malik, killed 14 people in December. Specifically, the government wanted Apple to create software that would override an "auto-wipe" feature which is designed to kick in after anyone makes 10 wrong attempts at guessing the iPhone's passcode. Once that feature is activated, it renders all the data on the phone permanently unreadable.

Apple said it could create the software the government wanted, but it argued vehemently that doing so would be a bad idea. CEO Tim Cook said the order would set a precedent for more government demands, both in the United States and around the world. Apple also said the software could be stolen by hackers and used against other iPhones.

Federal authorities insisted they were only asking for Apple's help in a single case, although prosecutors nationwide have said they wanted similar assistance in other cases where iPhones have been seized. While it's unclear if any useful information was stored on the iPhone, FBI Director James Comey said authorities owed it to the San Bernardino victims to leave no stone unturned in their investigation.

Why did this turn into such a big deal?
The case crystalized some long-simmering frustrations and conflict between the tech industry and law enforcement authorities.

Apple and other tech companies have been steadily increasing their use of encryption and other safeguards to protect their customers' data, following a wave of recent hacking attacks and revelations about government data-collection by the former National Security Agency contractor Edward Snowden.

Law enforcement officials, including Comey, have complained that encryption and other data safeguards are helping dangerous people hide their activities, while interfering with the government's ability to investigate crimes.

In the San Bernardino case, Apple drew support from other leading tech companies, computer security experts and civil liberties groups. They filed court briefs arguing the government was going too far in trying to force a company to create software that threatened its own customers' security. Meanwhile, top officials in the Obama administration, including US Attorney General Loretta Lynch, denounced Apple's stance and accused the company of trying to rewrite the rules for government investigations.

What did the judge decide?
The judge didn't have to rule. Cook had said he was prepared to take the case to the US Supreme Court. But last week, just one day before Magistrate Sheri Pym had planned to hold a hearing on the dispute, the Justice Department asked for a delay. Authorities said an unnamed "outside party" had come forward with a technical solution to unlocking the phone, which the FBI needed time to test out.

Then on Monday of this week, the government reported that it had successfully accessed the iPhone's files and no longer needed Apple's help. For that reason, the Justice Department asked the magistrate to withdraw the order she issued in February.

So who won?
Each side can claim a victory: Authorities say they achieved their goal of getting into the iPhone, while Apple successfully resisted a court order that it contends would be harmful to its customers.

Even so, the FBI may have lost some credibility. After repeatedly insisting that only Apple had the means to help authorities unlock the phone, it turned out there was another way.

In the court of public opinion, Apple made a strong case that it was standing up for its customers, and an important principle. But some people may believe the company should have done more to help law enforcement.

Does that end the matter?
It probably ends the dispute over one iPhone, but it's not the last we'll hear of this issue.

Law enforcement officials around the country still want to get into other iPhones. The FBI hasn't said how it got into the San Bernardino iPhone, but it may be able to use the same method in other cases. And we don't know who provided the solution that the FBI used. It's possible the method was devised by a private forensics expert or firm that will sell the service to other clients in the future.

Apple, of course, wants to know what method the FBI used so the company can decide if there's an iPhone vulnerability that needs to be fixed. Even if the FBI doesn't tell them, security experts predict Apple and other tech companies will keep adding more security measures to its products.

That could set the stage for more legal confrontations. Meanwhile, Congress has held hearings on the issue. Some legislators have discussed limiting how much help the government can demand of tech companies, while others want to require tech companies to provide more assistance in the future.

Know how the police works in Gujarat - Important information

મહાનિદેશક મુખ્ય પોલીસ અધિકારીની કચેરી :

(એ) ફરિયાદ -

ગુનાના બે પ્રકાર હોય છે. 

    (૧) કોગ્નિઝેબલ ગુનો-

પોલીસ અધિકારના ગુનાને કોગ્નિઝેબલ ગુનો કહે છે જેમાં ગુનાના આરોપીને વગર વોરંટે પકડવાની સત્તા પોલીસ ધરાવે છે.

    (ર) નોન-કોગ્નિઝેબલ ગુનો-

જે ગુનાના આરોપીને પોલીસ કોર્ટની પરવાનગી (વોરંટ) વગર પકડી શકતી નથી તેવા ગુનાને નોન-કોગ્નિઝેબલ ગુનો ગણવામાં આવે છે.

    (૧) કોગ્નિઝેબલ ગુનાની ફરિયાદ-

પોલીસ સ્ટેશનના ઇન્ચાર્જ અધિકારીશ્રીને લેખીત કે મૌખિક રીતે આપી શકાય છે. મૌખિક ફરિયાદ  એ જ વખતે લખીને ફરિયાદીને વાંચી સંભળાવી તેઓની સહી લઈ તેની નકલ ફરિયાદીને વિનામૂલ્યે આપવામાં આવે છે. આવી ફરિયાદ ટપાલ મારફતે પણ મોકલી શકાય છે. આઉટ પોસ્ટમાં પણ આ રીતે ફરિયાદ કરી શકાય છે.

    (ર) નોન-કોગ્નિઝેબલ ગુનાની ફરિયાદ-

નોન-કોગ્નિઝેબલ ગુનાની ફરિયાદ પોલીસ સ્ટેશનમાં આપી શકાય છે. જેની નોંધ નોન-કોગ્નિઝેબલ ફરિયાદ રજિસ્ટરમાં કરવામાં આવે છે. ગુનો નોંધવામાં આવતો નથી. આવી ફરિયાદની તપાસ કોર્ટની પરવાનગી મેળવ્યા બાદ કરવામાં આવે છે.

  • દરેક કોગ્નિઝેબલ ગુનાની તપાસની શરૂઆત એફ.આઈ.આર.થી થાય છે. 

  • ફરિયાદ ખાસ કરી ભોગ બનનાર અથવા બનાવ વખતે ત્યાં હાજર હોય તેની અથવા ભોગ બનનારનાં સગાં, સંબંધી, મિત્ર કે જે બનાવ વિશે જાણતા હોય તેણે કરવી જોઈએ. 

  • ઘણા કિસ્સામાં બિનવારસી લાશ મળે અને તે ગુનાહિત મૃત્યુ હોવાનું ફલિત થાય અને બનાવ અંગે કોઈ ફરિયાદી હાજર ન મળે તેવા સંજોગોમાં પોલીસ ફરિયાદી બને છે. 

  • ફરિયાદ પોલીસ સ્ટેશનમાં પી.એસ.ઓ.ને અગર બનાવ સ્થળે હાજર પોલીસ અધિકારીની સમક્ષ કરી શકાય છે. 

    ફરિયાદીએ ઘ્યાન આપવાની વિગત-

  • બનાવ બન્યા બાદ તરત જ નજીકના પોલીસ સ્ટેશન જઈ ફરિયાદ આપવી જોઈએ. 

  • ફરિયાદમાં બનાવનું કારણ અને હેતુ જણાવવાં. 

  • બનાવ અંગે સત્ય હકીકત જ જણાવવી અને બનાવસ્થળે હાજર સાક્ષીઓની જાણકારી હોય તો તેની વિગત અવશ્ય જણાવવી. 

  • બનાવવાળી જગ્યાએ પોલીસ તપાસમાં આવે ત્યાં સુધી જે તે હાલતમાં જાળવી રાખવી. 

  • ફરિયાદીએ કરેલ ફરિયાદની વિગત વાંચી, વંચાવી સહી કરવી અને તેની નકલ વિનામૂલ્યે મેળવી લેવી. 

  • ફરિયાદીએ જાણી જોઈ ખોટી ફરિયાદ કરી હોવાનું તપાસ દરમિયાન જણાય ત્યારે પોલીસ બી,  ફાઇનલ ભરી ફરિયાદી વિરૂદ્ધમાં કોર્ટની પગલાં લેવાની કાર્યવાહી કરી શકે છે. 

(બી) તપાસ -

  • કોગ્નિઝેબલ ફરિયાદ નોંધાયા બાદ પોલીસ અધિકારી દ્વારા તે ગુનાની તપાસ તરત કરવામાં આવે છે. બનાવવાળી જગ્યાએ જઈ તેનું પંચનામું કરી શાહેદોનાં નિવેદનો લેવાં અને જરૂરત જણાયે ફોરેન્સિક એક્સપર્ટની મદદ પણ લેવામાં આવે અને આરોપી વિરૂદ્ધ પૂરતો પૂરાવો તપાસ દરમિયાન જણાય પછી તે કામે ઇન્સાફ કરવા ચાર્જશીટ કરી કોર્ટમાં મોકલવામાં આવે છે. 

  • આવા ગુનાના કામે તપાસ દરમિયાન પૂરતા પૂરાવા ન મળે અથવા આરોપી શોધી શકાય નહીં કે ફરિયાદ ખોટી હોવાનું જણાય, ફરિયાદ દીવાની પ્રકારની જણાય અથવા પોલીસ અધિકાર બહારની જણાય તેવા સંજોગોમાં તપાસ કરનાર અધિકારી તરફથી નીચેની વિગતે જુદી જુદી સમરી માગવામાં આવે છે. 

  1. વર્ગ અ સમરી-
    નજીકના ભવિષ્યમાં આરોપી મળવાની શક્યતા ન હોવાનું જણાય ત્યારે. 

  2. વર્ગ બી સમરી-
    ફરિયાદ ખોટી હોવાનું જણાય ત્યારે. 

  3. વર્ગ સી સમરી -
    હકીકતની ભૂલના કારણે ફરિયાદ થયેલી હોવાનું ફલિત થાય અથવા તપાસના અંતે ફરિયાદની વિગત દીવાની પ્રકારની હોવાનું જણાય ત્યારે. 

  4. વર્ગ એન.સી. સમરી -
    તપાસના અંતે પોલીસ અધિકાર બહારનો ગુનો હોવાનું જણાઇ આવે ત્યારે. 

  • ગુનો દાખલ થયા બાદ ૧૪ દિવસ સુધીમાં ગુનાની તપાસ પૂર્ણ કરવાની હોય છે, પરંતુ સમયમર્યાદામાં તપાસ પૂર્ણ ન થાય તેવા સંજોગોમાં ઉપરી અધિકારીશ્રીની મંજૂરી મેળવી મુદતમાં વધારો કરી તપાસ ચાલુ રાખવામાં આવે છે. 

  • સી.આર.પી.સી.કલમ-૪૧(ર) હેઠળ પોલીસ વગર વોરંટે પકડવાનો અધિકાર ધરાવે છે. તેવી જ રીતે, 

  • કોગ્નિઝેબલ ગુના અટકાવવા સી.આર.પી.સી.કલમ, ૧પ૧ હેઠળ વગર વોરંટે ધરપકડ કરવાની સત્તા છે. 

  • નામદાર કોર્ટે ઇશ્યુ કરેલ ધરપકડ વોરંટના આધારે પોલીસ તે વ્યક્તિની અટકાયત કરી શકે છે. જે વોરંટ જામીનપાત્ર હોય તો શરતોને આધીન રહી તેવી વ્યક્તિને જામીનમુક્ત થવાનો અધિકાર છે. જ્યારે બિનજામીનલાયક વોરંટ અન્વયે ધરપકડ થયેલી વ્યક્તિને ર૪ કલાકની અંદર વોરંટ ઇશ્યુ કરનાર કોર્ટ સમક્ષ રજૂ કરવાનો રહે છે. તેવી જ રીતે વગર વોરંટે ગુનાના કામે ધરપકડ કરવામાં આવેલી વ્યક્તિને પણ ર૪ કલાકની અંદર જે તે હકૂમતી કોર્ટ સમક્ષ અટક કરેલ વ્યક્તિને રજૂ કરવાનો રહે છે. તપાસ અર્થે આરોપીની પોલીસ કસ્ટડીમાં વધુ સમય માટે જરૂરત જણાય તેવા સંજોગોમાં કોર્ટની પરવાનગી (રિમાન્ડ) મેળવી શકાય છે. 

  • ગુનો જામીનલાયક હોય તો પકડાયેલા આરોપીને યોગ્ય જામીન રજૂ કરવાથી જામીન પર મુક્ત કરવામાં આવશે. 

  • નામદાર કોર્ટે આપેલી સૂચના મૂજબ કોઈ પણ વ્યક્તિને અટક કરવામાં આવે ત્યારે તેને શા માટે પકડવામાં આવી છે તેની જાણ કરી અટક મેમોમાં તેની સહી લેવી અને પકડાયેલ વ્યક્તિનાં સગાં, સંબંધીને તાત્કાલિક ધરપકડ બાબતે જાણ કરવી. પકડાયેલી વ્યક્તિઓના નામ અત્રેના કન્ટ્રોલરૂમે રાખવામાં આવે છે. રિમાન્ડ દરમિયાન દર ૪૮ કલાકે અટકાયતીની ફરજિયાત મેડિકલ તપાસણી તપાસ કરનારે કરાવવી અને રિમાન્ડ દરમિયાન અટકાયતીને કોર્ટની પરવાનગી પછી જ હાથકડી, રસ્સી પહેરાવી, બાંધી શકાય છે. 


  • સી.આર.પી.સી. ના પ્રકરણ ૭માં જડતી અંગેની સત્તા આપવામાં આવી છે.  જડતીની જોગવાઇ કલમ ૯૩થી ૧૦રમાં આપવામાં આવી છે. તે મૂજબ વોરંટથી કે ઠરાવથી જડતી કરી શકાય છે. 

  • મહીલા આરોપીની અંગ જડતી મહીલા પોલીસ પાસે જ કરાવવી અને આ મહીલા આરોપીનો અધિકાર છે. 

    મુદ્દામાલ કબજે લેવા અંગે -

  • કેટલાક ગુનાઓમાં ગુનાવાળી જગ્યાએથી તેમ જ મિલ્કત વિરૂદ્ધના ગુનામાં ગયેલો મુદ્દામાલ કબજે લેવાની સત્તા પોલીસ ધરાવે છે. કબજે લેવાયેલા મુદ્દામાલની પાવતીમાં નોંધ કરી તેની એક નકલ જેની પાસેથી મુદ્દામાલ કબજે લીધો હોય તેની આપવી. 

    અરજીની તપાસ-

  • અત્રે જિલ્લા પોલીસ અધીક્ષકની કચેરીમાં અરજી શાખા જિલ્લા પોલીસ અધીક્ષકના સીધા માર્ગદર્શન હેઠળ કાર્યરત છે. 

  • અરજદાર પોતાની અરજી પોલીસ સ્ટેશન,પોલીસચોકી, આઉટ પોસ્ટમાં અથવા ઉપરી અધિકારીશ્રીને આપી શકે છે. 

  • અરજીની તપાસ સબબ અરજદારને અસંતોષ હોય તો નાયબ પોલીસ અધિકારીશ્રી અથવા જિલ્લા પોલીસ અધિકારીશ્રીને મળી રજૂઆત કરી શકે છે. 

  • સામાન્ય રીતે અરજી દિન ૧૪માં પૂર્ણ કરી નાખવાની હોય છે અને તપાસ માટે વધુ સમયની જરૂરીયાત હોય તો ઉપરી અધિકારીની તપાસ કરનારે પરવાનગી લેવાની રહે છે. દરેક પ્રકારની અરજી અરજી શાખા મારફતે તપાસાર્થે મોકલવામાં આવે છે અને તેના આખરી નિકાલની જાણ અરજદારને કરવામાં આવે છે. 

    હથિયાર પરવાના અરજી બાબત-

  • હથિયાર પરવાના અરજી જિલ્લા મેજિસ્ટ્રેટશ્રી તરફથી આવે છે. જે અરજી અન્વયે અત્રે પત્રવ્યવહાર શાખા ટેબલ ઉપરથી કાર્યવાહી કરવામાં આવે છે અને આવી અરજીનો નિકાલ કરવા અન્વયે ગુજરાત સરકારના ગૃહવિભાગ તરફથી પરિપત્ર નં.હપચ/૧૦૭૭/૩૮/૧ર, સ/ તા.૧૪/૧૦/૧૯૭૮થી સૂચના થયા મૂજબની સમયહરોળ દૂર કરવા સૂચન થઈ આવે છે.

  • હથિયાર પરવાના અરજીની પોલીસ તપાસ કરવાના સમયની મર્યાદા ૩૦ દિવસની મુકરર થઈ આવેલ છે. 

    કેદીને હાથકડી, બેડી પહેરાવવા બાબત-

  • કોઈ પણ કાચા કે પાકા કામના કેદીઓને કોર્ટમાં કે જેલમાં લઈ જતી, લાવતી વખતે કયા સંજોગોમાં કેદીને હાથકડી કે બેડી પહેરાવવી તે અંગેના સ્પષ્ટ નિયમો છે. કોર્ટના સ્પષ્ટ આદેશો સિવાય કેદીને હાથકડી પહેરાવવામાં આવતી નથી. તેમ છતાં જ્યારે પોલીસ અધિકારીને (એસ્કોર્ટ અધિકારીને) જણાય કે કેદી તોફાન કરે કે નાસી જવાનો પ્રયાસ કરે તેવો છે અને કોર્ટથી હાથકડી પહેરાવવા માટેના આદેશો તાત્કાલિક મેળવી શકાય તેમ નથી ત્યારે વિવેકબુદ્ધિ વાપરી હાથકડી પહેરાવી શકે છે અને આવા કિસ્સાઓમાં તેમણે કરેલી કાર્યવાહી અંગે સ્પષ્ટ કારણો નોંધી ન્યાયાધીશની મંજૂરી લેવાની રહેશે. 

  • આ અંગેનો પરિપત્ર અત્રેના તમામ થાણા અધિકારીને પાઠવવામાં આવ્યો છે અને પરિપત્રમાં જણાવેલી સૂચનાનો ચુસ્ત અમલ કરવા જણાવ્યું છે. 

    ગામના સરપંચની ફરજો -

  • ગામમાં દીવાની કે ફોજદારી ગુનો બને તેવા બનાવોની જાણ તરત જ પોલીસ સ્ટેશને કરવી જોઈએ. 

  • ગામમાં કોઈ વ્યક્તિ અકુદરતી અથવા અકસ્માતથી મૃત્યુ પામે અથવા ગામમાં શબ મળી આવે ત્યારે આઉટ પોસ્ટ અથવા પોલીસચોકી અગર પોલીસ સ્ટેશનમાં જાણ કરવી જોઈએ. 

  • ભુગર્ભમાં કોઈ અસામાજિક પ્રવૃત્તિ ચાલતી હોય તેની જાણ પણ પોલીસને કરવી જોઈએ. 

  • ગામમાં બે કોમો વચ્ચે કોઈ કારણોસર મનદુઃખ થયેલું હોય તો તેની પણ જાણ કરવી જોઈએ. 

  • ગામમાં અનું.જાતિ/અનું.જન જાતિના લોકો સમાજમાં એકસમાન તક સાથે જીવી શકે તે માટે સાનુકૂળ વાતાવરણ ઊભું કરી તેઓ પર અત્યાચાર ન થાય કે તેઓની સાથે આભડછેટ ન રાખવામાં આવે તેની કાળજી રાખવી. 

    લાંચરુશવત બાબતે ફરિયાદ -

  • કોઈ પણ વ્યક્તિ પાસે કોઈ પણ ખાતાના કર્મચારી દ્વારા લાંચરુશવતની માગણી કરવામાં આવે ત્યારે તે વ્યક્તિની વિરૂદ્ધમાં ફરિયાદ કરવા માટે સરકારે લાંચરુશવત વિરોધી ખાતાની રચના કરી છે. જેની મુખ્ય ઓફિસ અમદાવાદ ખાતે આવેલ છે. જેમાં નાયબ પોલીસ અધિકારીશ્રીની કક્ષા ના તથા પોલીસ ઈન્સપેકટર કક્ષાના અધિકારીઓ ફરજ બજાવે છે. કોઈપણ ખાતાના કર્મચારી વિરૂદ્ધની લાંચરુશવત સંબંધી ફરિયાદ તેઓની પાસે કરી શકાય છે. 

  • લાંચરુશવતની ફરિયાદ કોઈ પણ નાયબ પોલીસ અધિકારી અથવા તેનાથી ઉપરના દરજ્જાના અધીક્ષક પાસે પણ થઈ શકે છે. 

    ફોન નંબર -

  • અમદાવાદ, એ.સી.બી. ઓફિસ - ર૮૬૯રર૩,ર૮૬૯રર૪

  • અમદાવાદ ગ્રામ્ય અને ગાંધીનગર એ.સી.બી. ઓફિસ - ૨૩૨૬૧૩૭૩

  • રાજકોટ શહેર, એ.સી.બી. ઓફિસ - રર૪૬પપ,ર૩પ૦૯૯,રર૩૪૯૭ 

  • જામનગર શહેર, એ.સી.બી. ઓફિસ - રપપ૧૧૭પ

  • મહેસાણા એ.સી.બી. ઓફિસ - ૦૨૭૬૨-૨૨૧૨૨૦

  • પાલનપુર એ.સી.બી. ઓફિસ - ૦૨૭૪૨-૨૫૨૦૦૫

  • હિંમતનગર એ.સી.બી. ઓફિસ - ૦૨૭૭૨-૨૪૦૬૫૭

  • ભૂજ એ.સી.બી. ઓફિસ - ફે-૦૨૮૩૨-૨૫૦૨૫૪

  • સુરેન્દ્રનગર એ.સી.બી. ઓફિસ - ફે-૦૨૭૫૨-૨૮૩૫૫૦

  • જૂનાગઢ એ.સી.બી. ઓફિસ - ૦૨૮૫-૨૬૫૧૩૫૨

  • ભાવનગર એ.સી.બી. ઓફિસ - ૦૨૭૮-૨૪૨૦૯૮૦

  • અમરેલી એ.સી.બી. ઓફિસ - ૦૨૭૯૨-૨૨૨3૦૮

  • વડોદરા એ.સી.બી. ઓફિસ - ૦૨૬૫-૨૪૨3૮૫૦૦

  • નડિયાદ એ.સી.બી. ઓફિસ - ૦૨૬૮-૨૫૫૦૦૫૮

  • ગોધરા એ.સી.બી. ઓફિસ - ૦૨૬૭૨-૨૪૨૮૧૪

  • સુરત એ.સી.બી. ઓફિસ - ૦૨૬૧-૨૪૬૨૭૫૭

  • વલસાડ એ.સી.બી. ઓફિસ - ૦૨૬3૨-૨૫3૧૫૫

  • ભરૂચ એ.સી.બી. ઓફિસ - ૦૨૬૪૨-૨૪૧૬૧૧૧

Procedure to get passport in Gujarat

Thursday, March 24, 2016

Illegal to rent out a terrace for weddings, says Bombay HC

It is illegal to hire out a building terrace for private functions, including weddings, the Bombay high court has observed, bringing to an end a long run of unauthorised roof-top receptions in a commercial building in Santacruz (west).

However, when a bride-to-be, Fazila Mukaddam, beseeched the high court on Wednesday, Justice S J Kathawalla who made sure that all future rentals were cancelled, allowed one last wedding party to ride up the elevator on March 26, on "purely humanitarian grounds", given the paucity of time for her family to book an alternative marriage reception hall.

At Dheeraj Heritage, the building in Daulat Nagar, a battle between the housing society and the developer over property tax dues worth over Rs 6 crore revealed how one person, allegedly known to the developer, was using the terrace as his private property to rent it out for weddings and social functions. The society moved the high court after the municipality issued an order of attachment last year against the building because of unpaid property tax of over Rs 6 crore from 2001 till March 31, 2011, a major chunk of dues was between 2005 and 2011.

The society, through its counsel Girish Godbole, had said that the tax had been paid to the developer, Housing Development and Improvement India Pvt Ltd and Pioneer India, who in turn had to pay the amount to the municipality, but that they had failed to do so.

The society filed a suit against the developer to recover that amount and also to have the building conveyed to it. It said that the terrace was illegally being let out for for weddings by one Abdul Barudgar, based on a "purported memorandum of understanding" signed by the developer in 2005. The society complained that the municipality had for a decade turned a blind eye to these illegalities.

The developer has challenged and opposed the suit. The municipality said that the society - the building was constructed under a slum rehabilitation scheme - would have to pay the dues and cannot raise a belated challenge now. The property tax dispute remains pending.

10 departments may not be reporting all RTI applications

The state information commission is now suspicious that 10 departments of the Gujarat government are severely under-reporting RTI applications filed by citizens with public information officers right from the village level. The commission in its 2014-15 annual report claims that there has been a drop of 11,576 applications filed before 28 major departments of the state. In 2013-14, there were 1.72 lakh RTI applications filed across the state, which fell to 1.61 lakh in 2014-15. 

Under the commission's scanner are the departments of agriculture and co-operatives, education, food and civil supplies, consumer affairs, health and family welfare, Narmada water supply, panchayats and rural housing, social justice, tribal development and women and child development. 

The commission's report says: "The functions of the above 10 departments affect the life of people right down to the village level. The panchayats department deals with more than 18,000 villages and if the department states that only 6,033 RTI applications were filed in an entire year, it appears suspicious." 

Citing the example of the education department, the report states: "Government primary schools in almost all villages of the state, are expected to receive a considerable number of RTI applications. However, the number is shown to be 3,541, and it looks suspicious."

Through the year, the commission imposed fines on 69 officials in state government with the maximum penalty being Rs 25,000.

State backtracks on GR for holding FIRs against staff

The state government informed the Gujarat high court on Wednesday that it has substituted the government resolution (GR) issued on February 2 with two fresh GRs issued on February 6 and March 19. According to the government's submission the fresh GRs, taken together, are in line with the Supreme Court's judgement in Lalita Kumari's case, which requires immediate FIR in cognizable offences. 

The Feb 2 GR had raised huge controversy as it had directed police not to register FIRs straight away against government employees, without completing primary inquiry. It was immediately challenged in the high court. In Lalita Kumari's case, the apex court mentioned that in five categories of offences, including domestic disputes, delayed complaints, corruption cases, medical negligence, and commercial offences, primary inquiry 'may be' made before registration of an FIR. A public interest litigation and a criminal application were filed in the high court by Congress party leader Indravijaysinh Gohil, and a lawyer K R Koshti who sought quashing of the Feb 2 GR on the grounds that it was in violation of the SC's order, and also against the provisions of the Criminal Procedure Code. They have argued that the GR was a bid to shield corrupt state government officials. When the case came up for hearing earlier this month, the state government had said it was giving "serious consideration" and examining the resolution against the apex court's order.

Tuesday, March 22, 2016

Tips for avoiding online fraud and identity theft

Online fraud is one of the most widespread forms of cybercrime, with the Internet used increasingly to steal the identities and financial information of unsuspecting surfers. Criminals use unsolicited email messages, as well as websites, chat rooms, message boards and social networks in order to get access to people’s details.
Types of fraud to watch out for
Internet fraudsters are so dangerous because the tactics they employ are changing all the time – however, there are definite patterns to watch out for, and armed with technical advice and common sense it’s possible to prevent online fraud.
As more and more people use their data-rich handsets for banking and online shopping, they become more attractive to cybercriminals. The world of protecting all of your Internet-accessible devices is growing trickier almost every day. As the security holes are plugged, cybercriminals look for new ones with craftier ways to get you to invite malware onto your devices. Norton can help prevent this from happening.
Phishing scams
Phishing is a popular ploy from Internet conartists, which frequently takes the form of email messages designed to steal information from the unwary.
Usually disguised as emails from reputable companies such as banks, or more recently from social networks like Facebook and Twitter, phishing scams instruct the victim to enter personal details on a malicious website, or to respond directly to the email.
Pharming scams
Though similar to phishing in that unsuspecting users are directed to malicious websites, pharming is more difficult to detect as it doesn’t require a click. Visitors are redirected automatically, even if they have typed in the correct web address.
How can you combat online fraud?
Whether criminals are trying to target you with phishing or pharming schemes, trojans and viruses, or something else entirely – you can fight identity theft and avoid becoming a victim of online fraud with the following tips.
1. Check your bank statements
It’s easier than ever for fraudsters to go after bank details thanks to online banking; but it’s also easier for users to check bank statements now that every detail is available at the touch of a button. Some banks will alert you if they detect suspicious activity, but only you will really know where you’ve been spending your money, so be sure to check your balance on a regular basis.
2. Be careful when opening attachments
Think carefully before opening email attachments, especially when these come from senders that you don’t know. Some of the most destructive viruses are spread via attachments (see: I Love You, for example) and while rigorous filters are applied to emails, it’s still important to make sure you know the sender and that you have an idea of what should be in the file.
3. Keep your operating system (OS) and software up-to-date
Norton is fixing issues with your computer as soon as criminals are able to exploit them, so it’s essential that you keep all software up-to-date if you’re going to avoid becoming a victim of online fraud. This doesn’t just apply to your Internet protection software though; most software manufacturers, including your OS provider, regularly release security patches that make it more difficult for fraudsters to get hold of your details.
4. Disable file sharing on your computer
File sharing is enabled by default on most computers running certain versions of Windows, which means that anyone in your workgroup is able to see your files. Choosing to disable file sharing doesn’t mean that you can’t allow access to people; instead it just means that you’re able to choose who you show your files to.
Computers running on Microsoft’s older operating systems are at risk, particularly the Windows XP operating system, and more so as less support becomes available through Windows Update.
  1. Open My Computer
  2. On the Tools menu, click Folder Options
  3. Click the View tab
  4. Go to Advanced Settings and uncheck Use simple file sharing (Recommended).

5. Use a strong password
Choosing a strong password for all services you use (preferably a different password for each service) will make it harder for thieves to gain access to your details. When selecting a password use at least eight characters, with a mixture of upper and lower case and both letters and numbers.
It’s also important to avoid using names or interests as passwords; this information is easy to get hold of from your social media profiles, as well as being easy to guess.
Norton Internet Security encrypts passwords for secure storage; monitors them for unapproved usage to ensure that you don’t enter your password anywhere by mistake and notifies you if the website you’re visiting offers secure login capabilities.
6. Read the website’s privacy policy
Almost all websites display a privacy policy, which can usually be found in the footer but is occasionally displayed more prominently. If you are asked to enter any confidential or personal data, take a look at the site’s policy. If you do not trust the site, do not enter any details.
7. Don’t give away your PIN code
Your bank will never ask you for your PIN code – over the phone, via email or on the website. If you’re being asked to disclose your PIN, the person you’re communicating with may not be a representative of your bank: DON’T give it to them.
8. Open websites in new browser windows before entering personal details
Don’t enter any personal information if you’ve arrived on a website from an external link or pop-up ad, even on a real site. Open a new browser window and type the URL directly into the address bar to ensure the site is legitimate; as explained above, pharming schemes can cause genuine websites to direct unsuspecting users to malicious pages, so ensure you’re on the correct page before inputting information.
9. Try not to keep financial information on your laptop
Laptops are much more likely to be stolen than desktops: try not to store any financial information on your laptop unless absolutely necessary. It’s also important to ensure that your computer is password protected in case it is misplaced.
10. Note down the details of companies you buy from
If you’re purchasing a product online, make a note of the address and phone number of the company you’re buying from – especially if it’s a small or independent retailer. Do not just rely on an email address; if the company is not genuine the information may help you to get your money back.
11. Use encrypted sites where possible
Social networks and websites may ask you whether you would like to turn on encryption – you should select yes if this is an option. If the site is preceded by ‘https’ this is an indication that it has been independently verified and that they are who they say they are. A padlock symbol will also be displayed in the address bar, which means that any login or payment processes on the site are secure.
12. Look for the ‘Norton Secured’ seal
The ‘Norton Secured’ seal is displayed on many trustworthy sites; this means that the site you’re visiting has been authenticated by us and is protected against malware.
13. Check for company email atddresses
If you’re receiving communications claiming to be from your bank, an online store, a social network, or any other company, the email should be sent from an email extension registered to that company. Banks do not correspond with their customers from email addresses provided by gmail.com, yahoo.co.uk etc. – it’s safer to avoid sending personal details via email at all if you can avoid it.
14. Do not send or receive money on others’ behalf
Banks do not generally allow UK customers to make transfers overseas using Internet banking services and since many fraudsters are based overseas, they require UK residents to transfer funds for them. If you have received an unsolicited email from a sender asking to transfer money into your account, this money is likely to be stolen from other UK bank accounts. If you comply you are not only aiding criminals, which is an offence, but you’re also giving these people access to your bank account.
15. Destroy financial data when throwing it away
There are opportunities for thieves to gain access to your online accounts without going through your computer – people regularly throw away confidential financial information, including paper copies of online banking logins and so on. Ensure that you destroy any personal information before throwing it away by shredding bank statements and expired cards.
16. Report online fraud
If you think you’ve become a victim of identity theft or cybercrime, report it to the proper authorities immediately. Visit the Action Fraud site for more information.

Busy Life - Safely Using Airport Wi-Fi

Airport Wi-Fi Report: Be Smart and Know the Risks

Heading out of town to visit relatives during the Holidays is as traditional as turkey dinners, electronic gifts, mistletoe, and snowmen. But what many people do not look forward to is the hustle, bustle, and time-consuming activity of actually heading into, through, and out of airports. This year, more than ever, millions of travelers will be using the public Wi-Fi systems available at municipal and International airports around the world. You may be one of them. With your handheld device, your laptop, or your tablet computer, you’ll be checking on your flights, sending out email, or maybe even working on that report that you promised your boss by January 3rd. But how safe is the airport’s wireless security?  How do you protect yourself – and your private information - from identity theft, fraud, and other cybercrimes? 
Airports are high on the list of having “rampant phony Wi-Fi hot spots” created by phishers and other criminals, according to a recent study. This means that when you’re travelling and using the Internet at an airport, your personal information (including user names, passwords, credit card numbers, etc.) are passing through the air unprotected and is perfect prey for cyber-crooks. Experts cite a number of reasons for this serious breach, including the cost of securing a public area as large as an airport. In fact, as city and state budgets get slashed during the current economic climate, even the Federal government has trouble finding funds for adequate Internet security at airports.  The result is that airports have become a perfect breeding ground for professional and amateur jerks trying to rip you off in some way.
There are a few things you can do in advance and at the airport to minimize your risk.  Here are some tips to help you keep your holiday travel safe and secure:
What to do Before You Travel
Secure your laptop – There’s no better way to protect your data from hackers, virusesspyware, and spam then to make sure you’re using a strong personal firewall such as Norton Internet Security. Use this product and not only do you get the advanced protection from online threats, but this Granddaddy of the Norton brand of products boasts four layers of smart protection that proactively detects and eliminates threats before reaching your computer. The specific protection it offers while you’re at the airport is that Norton Internet Security prevents bad guys from hacking in and swiping your information when you’re using public Wi-Fi.
Secure your mobile device and tablet – To help avoid possible fraud, make sure you get Norton Mobile Security on all your mobile phone devices before you leave home. Not only will it prevent strangers from using it if it gets lost or stolen, but the program will detect and eliminate mobile threats, block unwanted calls and texts, and provides top-notch anti-phishing web protection at airports and other public Wi-Fi areas where risks are high.  Get the same protection on your tablets with Norton Mobile Security.
Mind Your Settings – Set any Bluetooth devices to "hidden", not "discoverable". If you don’t use the Bluetooth function, make sure you turn it off altogether. Also, disable geo-tracking on your smart phones.
Reset your Passwords – Use strong passwords on your mobile device, laptops, and tablets.  Make sure everyone in the family does the same. In addition, it’s a good idea to learn your phone’s ESN. This is the electronic serial number that will come in handy if your device is lost or stolen.  Also, change your network configuration to manually select each wireless network it joins, rather than any automatic selection.
Back up! – Before your trip, back up your files, your programs, and your personal data. Both Norton Internet Security and Norton 360 have various backup options, including backing up your files to the “cloud”.
Don’t advertise your trip – As much fun as it is to share your plans with friends and family, it is unwise to advertise the dates, places, and times you’ll be out of town.  Criminals look for all kinds of hints on how to steal from you, and if you’re letting everyone know that you won’t be home between certain dates, how difficult is it for bad guys to find out where you live?  Ease up on the social networking when it comes to vacation details. 
Check Kids’ Stuff – Are your kids using laptops, netbooks, or smart phones? Make sure all their devices are adequately secure with proper security software.  Get their phones loaded up with Norton Mobile Security. If they’re using a tablet, get them Norton Mobile Security.   For their laptops, Norton 360 will let them surf and socialize safely, protecting their computer from malicious websites, includingphishing sites that can steal identities and worse. Norton 360 also provides online recovery and restoring features just in case your child loses an important homework assignment, song files, irreplaceable photos, or a favorite game.
What to do While You’re Traveling
Avoid Bill Paying and other financial transactions – Try getting all your financial chores done before you get to the airport. If you absolutely must pay that one bill you forgot to take care, go ahead and do it. But get your personal business done ahead of time so you can avoid entering user names and passwords on a busy, crowded, and unsecured airport Internet. Always assume your Wi-Fi connection, particularly at the airport, is vulnerable. Limit email and IM to casual communication.
Remind Your Kids – Refresh your kids with information about smart and safe Internet use in a public place. Tell them to be wary of anyone sitting too close; make sure they NEVER share their user names and passwords; and encourage off-line games and videos instead of online activities, particularly while at the airport.
Watch your Back – “Shoulder surfers” are crooks that looking for people so absorbed in online activity that they won’t notice someone taking note of passwords and other information getting typed in. These identity thieves are at the airport, a hotel lobby, a crowded bar or restaurant – anywhere where you might be mindlessly surfing the Internet.  Be aware of your surroundings!   Remember, if you can read the magazine of the person sitting nearby, he or she can probably read the screen on your laptop. An inexpensive privacy screen is a great in-flight option and they’re sold in every local office supply shop.
Turn off file sharing – Turn off file sharing while at the airport. If you have highly sensitive or personal data, consider storing it elsewhere.
Finally, don’t let airport and public hot spot “insecurity” ruin your trip!  Be vigilant about your Internet use while travelling.  Stay smart, aware, and protected.  

Catch Spyware Before It Snags You

“Sophisticated forms of spyware have been known to capture and transmit highly personal information to identity thieves.”
Have you ever clicked on an intriguing ad or link while surfing the Web and had a barrage of pop-up windows flood your screen or your browser suddenly send you to a slew of unsavory sites? Or have you ever installed a free download and noticed that your computer is suddenly sluggish because, unbeknownst to you, a program is now tracking your online movements? 
Welcome to the mystifying world of spyware and adware. These programs are more than annoying. They can also pose security risks to everyday Internet users like you.
Spyware and Adware
Spyware usually finds its way onto your computer without your knowledge or permission. It runs in the background, collecting information or monitoring your activities. A lot of spyware harvests information related to your computer and how you use it. For example, it may monitor your Web browsing patterns. However, more sophisticated forms of spyware have been known to capture and transmit highly personal information to identity thieves, from your website passwords and usernames to your credit card numbers or copies of your instant messages.
Adware is slightly different than spyware--the intent is primarily to display advertising content on your computer. Often using pop-up windows, adware programs flash advertisements and links to other websites. Many of these ads tout legitimate products. Some adware monitors your browsing activities and then uses that information to deliver more focused advertising content. Some people don't mind, but others consider this practice an invasion of privacy.
The most important question is: Do you want this program on your computer? If it compromises privacy and security as you define it (or at a minimum, becomes a nuisance), then it falls squarely in the category of unwelcome software. And that means you need to learn how to deal with it.
How to Remove Spyware and Adware
Whether they pose security risks or performance headaches, it's clear some types of spyware are more than a nuisance. For example, spyware and adware, working busily in the background, can dominate your computer's resources, sometimes bringing down your entire system. While a slow machine is annoying for anyone, it's especially hard on home office users.
Often these programs get installed along with other programs you've loaded. Of course, there's probably some sort of notification within the software's licensing agreement. However, these agreements tend to be quite long, and most of us don't read them in their entirety. In a typical scenario, spyware or adware gets bundled with freeware you download from the Internet. While some see this as a fair tradeoff--you get free software, the software-maker gets to observe your habits--others find it deceptive and invasive.
Meanwhile, a lot of unwelcome software makes its way onto your machine as you surf the Web. In many cases, they get you to trigger a download by clicking on a pop-up window or fake dialog box. Some pop-ups contain an "urgent" or enticing message. It might offer a free gift or claim that you need to download software to see a Web page. The window often presents what appears to be a "yes" or "no" choice. In reality, if you click the window, it will download spyware or adware to your computer, so be sure to just close the window.
How to Avoid Spyware and Adware
A lot of unwelcome software ends up on your computer in part because of something you did or did not do. Here's how to avoid unwanted spyware or adware:
  • Be selective about what you download to your computer. Make sure you really need a program before downloading it. And if you've never heard of the software maker, read its website carefully to learn more about the people behind the technology, as well as the technology itself. Also, watch out for ActiveX, which is a common tool for installing spyware without your knowledge or consent. You can turn off ActiveX via your browser preferences and you can always turn it back on should a trusted site require it.
  • Read licensing agreements. It can seem daunting to read these agreements, but to play it safe, don't just scroll to the bottom and click the "I accept" button when installing freeware. Instead, read each agreement carefully and look for language pertaining to any information-gathering activity, which could mean that you’ll get spyware or adware along with your freebie.
  • Watch out for anti-spyware scams. The Web is rife with "anti-spyware" tools that do little or nothing to prevent spyware. Some even make it worse. Purveyors of these tools often provide free scans, which almost invariably identify hundreds of spyware programs on your computer. They then immediately ask you to buy their bogus product.
  • Beware of clickable advertisements. Try to avoid programs--especially freeware--that flash clickable ads. These ads should be a red flag. If you click the ads, it's possible someone is watching how you respond to them.
Unfortunately, spyware and adware aren't going away any time soon. But you can take control by deciding what gets in, what stays out, and what remains on your computer.